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Citing books, articles, and other sources parenthetically in your paper

Citing books, articles, and other sources parenthetically in your paper
Use the table below to learn how to format various types of MLA parenthetical citations. Please note that although the MLA Handbook recommends underlining book titles, italics are used in these examples because of internet browser limitations.
Type of citation Example
Author's name in text Magny develops this argument (67-69).
Author's name in reference This argument has been developed elsewhere (Magny 67-69).
Quotation found in indirect or "secondhand" source The philosopher Alain states that "admiration is not pleasure but a kind of attention. . ." (qtd. in Magny 66).
Material found in indirect source Alain's words seem to dissociate admiration from pleasure (in Magny 66).
Two authors' names in reference The most notorious foreign lobby in Washington is the "Sugar Mafia" (Howe and Trott 134).
Reference to volume and page in multivolume work As a painter Andrea was "faultless" (Freedberg 1: 98).
Reference to whole volume In his second volume, Freedberg gives an account of Andrea's whole painting career.
Two works by same author on list of works cited Frye connects Burgess' A Clockwork Orange to romance tradition (Secular Scripture 110).
Two locations in same source Dabundo deals with this problem (22, 31).
Two sources cited This controversy has been addressed more than once (Dabundo 27; Magny 69).
Personal interview; name given in text Parsons talked about the need for physical education teachers to understand the relationship between physical activity and fitness.
Corporate author Many different types of organizations in the United States are involved in mediation and dispute resolution (Natl. Inst. for Dispute Resolution).
Electronic source that uses paragraph numbers The semiconductor workplace is highly toxic (Ross, par. 35).
Electronic source that uses chapter and section numbers "Once we start using a tool extensively, it also starts using us" (Rawlins, ch. 1, sec. 1).

Format the Works Cited page
On (a) separate page(s) at the end of your paper, list alphabetically by author every work cited in your paper, using the basic forms illustrated on the previous pages.
List only those sources you actually cited in your paper.
As illustrated on the previous pages, the rule for referring to material in an indirect or secondhand source--that is, for citing when you have not seen the original but have obtained the information from another document that cited the original source--is to list the source your have seen, not the original.
Please note that although the MLA Handbook recommends underlining book titles, italics are used on these pages because of internet browser limitations.
________________________________________
Title Title the page Works Cited (not Bibliography), at the top of a new page, centered.
________________________________________
Spacing All entries should be double-spaced, unless your assignment instructs you otherwise.
________________________________________
Indentation Begin an entry at the margin; indent the remaining lines five spaces.
________________________________________
Source Titles Underline or italicize titles of books, periodicals, films, and television series (but not individual episodes).
________________________________________
Electronic sources As explained in the sixth edition of the MLA Handbook, a citation for an electronic publication typically has more parts than a citation for a print publication does.

For an electronic source, provide five types of information (as available):
(1) Author's name
(2) Title
(3) Information about print publication
(4) Information about electronic publication
(5) Information about access

Citing books, articles, and other sources parenthetically in your paper
Use the table below to learn how to format various types of MLA parenthetical citations. Please note that although the MLA Handbook recommends underlining book titles, italics are used in these examples because of internet browser limitations.
Type of citation Example
Author's name in text Magny develops this argument (67-69).
Author's name in reference This argument has been developed elsewhere (Magny 67-69).
Quotation found in indirect or "secondhand" source The philosopher Alain states that "admiration is not pleasure but a kind of attention. . ." (qtd. in Magny 66).
Material found in indirect source Alain's words seem to dissociate admiration from pleasure (in Magny 66).
Two authors' names in reference The most notorious foreign lobby in Washington is the "Sugar Mafia" (Howe and Trott 134).
Reference to volume and page in multivolume work As a painter Andrea was "faultless" (Freedberg 1: 98).
Reference to whole volume In his second volume, Freedberg gives an account of Andrea's whole painting career.
Two works by same author on list of works cited Frye connects Burgess' A Clockwork Orange to romance tradition (Secular Scripture 110).
Two locations in same source Dabundo deals with this problem (22, 31).
Two sources cited This controversy has been addressed more than once (Dabundo 27; Magny 69).
Personal interview; name given in text Parsons talked about the need for physical education teachers to understand the relationship between physical activity and fitness.
Corporate author Many different types of organizations in the United States are involved in mediation and dispute resolution (Natl. Inst. for Dispute Resolution).
Electronic source that uses paragraph numbers The semiconductor workplace is highly toxic (Ross, par. 35).
Electronic source that uses chapter and section numbers "Once we start using a tool extensively, it also starts using us" (Rawlins, ch. 1, sec. 1).
Works Cited page entry: Article
Please note that although the MLA Handbook recommends underlining book titles and other material italicized in print, italics are used in these examples because of internet browser limitations.
Type of source Sample entry in reference list
Journal Article Dabundo, Laura. "'The Voice of the Mute': Wordsworth
and the Ideology of Romantic Silences."
Christianity and Literature 43.1 (1995): 21-35.
Magazine Article Alpern, David M. "Has Moscow Violated SALT?" Newsweek
22 Oct. 1984: 32.
Newspaper Article Crossette, Barbara. "India Lodges First Charges in Arms
Scandal." New York Times 23 Jan. 1990, natl.
ed.: A4.
Article or Chapter in Anthology Magny, Claude-Edmonde. "Faulkner or Theological
Inversion." Faulkner: A Collection of Critical
Essays. Ed. Robert Penn Warren. Englewood Cliffs:
Prentice-Hall, 1966. 66-78.
Works Cited page entry: Article
Please note that although the MLA Handbook recommends underlining book titles and other material italicized in print, italics are used in these examples because of internet browser limitations.
Type of source Sample entry in reference list
Journal Article Dabundo, Laura. "'The Voice of the Mute': Wordsworth
and the Ideology of Romantic Silences."
Christianity and Literature 43.1 (1995): 21-35.
Magazine Article Alpern, David M. "Has Moscow Violated SALT?" Newsweek
22 Oct. 1984: 32.
Newspaper Article Crossette, Barbara. "India Lodges First Charges in Arms
Scandal." New York Times 23 Jan. 1990, natl.
ed.: A4.
Article or Chapter in Anthology Magny, Claude-Edmonde. "Faulkner or Theological
Inversion." Faulkner: A Collection of Critical
Essays. Ed. Robert Penn Warren. Englewood Cliffs:
Prentice-Hall, 1966. 66-78.
Works Cited page entry: Book
Please note that although the MLA Handbook recommends underlining book titles, italics are used in these examples because of internet browser limitations.
Type of source Sample entry in reference list
Book:
Single Author Frye, Northrop. Anatomy of Criticism:
Four Essays. Princeton: Princeton UP,
1957.
Another Work:
Same Author ---. The Secular Scripture. Cambridge:
Harvard UP, 1976.
Book:
Two Authors Howe, Russell Warren, and Sarah Hays Trott.
The Power Peddlers. Garden City:
Doubleday, 1977.
More than Three Authors or Editors Edens, Walter, et al., eds. Teaching
Shakespeare. Princeton: Princeton UP,
1977.
Multivolume Work Freedberg, S. J. Andrea del Sarto. 2 vols.
Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1963.
Book:
Corporate Author National Institute for Dispute Resolution.
Dispute Resolution Resource Directory.
Washington: Natl. Inst. for Dispute
Resolution, 1984.
An Edition Malory, Sir Thomas. King Arthur and his
Knights. Ed. Eugene Vinaver. London:
Oxford UP, 1956.
Anthology Harari, Josue, ed. Textual Strategies. Ithaca:
Cornell UP, 1979.
Article or Chapter in Anthology Magny, Claude-Edmonde. "Faulkner or Theological
Inversion." Faulkner: A Collection of
Critical Essays. Ed. Robert Penn Warren.
Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1966. 66-78.
Second or Later Edition Altick, Richard, and John J. Fenstermaker. The
Art of Literary Research. 4th ed. New York:
Norton, 1993.
Works Cited page entry: Government publication, encyclopedia entry
Please note that although the MLA Handbook recommends underlining book titles, italics are used in these examples because of internet browser limitations.
Type of source Sample entry in reference list
Government Publication United States. Federal Maritime Commission.
Hawaiian Trade Study: An Economic Analysis.
Washington: GPO, 1978.
Signed Encyclopedia Entry Foster, John S., Jr. "Nuclear War." The
Encyclopedia Americana. Intl. ed. 1998.
Works Cited page entry: Personal interview, film, tv program
Please note that although the MLA Handbook recommends underlining material that is italicized in print, italics are used in these examples because of internet browser limitations.
Type of source Sample entry in reference list
Personal Interview Parsons, Gwynneth. Personal interview.
7 Sept. 2003.
Film Inherit the Wind. Dir. Stanley Kramer.
Perf. Spencer Tracy and Frederic
March. United Artists, 1960.

[Note: If it's the director or another individual associated
with the film that you want to cite, start the entry with that
person's name--here, for example, Kramer, Stanley, dir.]
Television Program Voyage to the Galapagos. Host Alan Alda.
Scientific American Frontiers. PBS.
5 Oct. 1999.
Works Cited page entry: Electronic source
Please note that although the MLA Handbook recommends underlining material that is italicized in print, italics are used in these examples because of internet browser limitations.
Entries for electronic sources include five types of information (as available): (1) author name, (2) title, (3) information about print publication, (4) information about electronic publication, and (5) access information.
Type of source Sample entry in reference list
Online scholarly article Ross, Andrew. "Hacking Away at the
Counterculture." Postmodern Culture
1.1 (1990): 43 pars. 3 May 2003
postmodern_culture/v001.1ross.html>.
An entire online book Rawlins, Gregory J. Moths to the Flame.
Cambridge: MIT P, 1996. MIT Press.
30 Aug 2000 moths/>
A part of an online book Rawlins, Gregory J. Preface. Moths to the
Flame. Cambridge: MIT P, 1996. MIT
Press. 3 Aug. 2000 e-books/moths/preface.html>.
Online scholarly project Suffragists Oral History Project. 1998.
Library, U of California, Berkeley. 20
Jan. 2003 BANC/ROHO/ohonline/suffragists.html>.

(Note: If the site lists an editor [and some do],
insert, e.g., "Ed. John P. Doe." before the first date.)
An entire Internet site Electronic Beowulf. Ed. Kevin Kiernan. 2003.
5 Sept. 2003 eBeowulf/guide.htm>.
Article in online magazine Fallows, James. "The Age of Murdoch." Atlantic
Online Sept. 2003. 10 Oct. 2003
09/fallows.htm>.
Article in online newspaper Goldfarb, Zachary A. "Child Health Dilemma."
Washington Times 31 Aug. 2003. 4 Sept. 2003
20030831-121939-8655r.htm>.

(Note: Some URLs are so long that they are time-consuming to
reproduce accurately. In these cases you may provide the URL
of the site's search page instead--here, for example,
.)
Article in online encyclopedia "Drake, Sir Francis." Columbia Encyclopedia.
2002. Columbia Encyclopedia. 6 July 2003
.
Document from online database "Macromedia, Inc." Hoover's Online. 2002.
Hoover's, Inc. 4 Sept 2003 hoovers.com/free/co/factsheet.xhtml?COID=16658>.
A home page for a course Todar, Kenneth. Host-Parasite Interactions.
Course home page. Spring 2003. Dept. of
Bacteriology, U of Wisconsin. 7 Apr. 2003
.
An e-mail communication Tetslaff, Melissa. E-mail to the author. 17
Sept. 2002.
Newspaper article from online database Young, Judith S.L. "Fadeout; Only a Few Grand
Old Movie Theaters Remain to Remind Us of
Their Golden Age." Newsday 3 Aug. 2003,
Queens ed.: G06. Lexis-Nexis. 5 July 2003















A Guide for Writing Research Papers
based on Styles Recommended by
The American Psychological Association
Prepared by the Humanities Department as part of
The Guide to Grammar and Writing
and the Arthur C. Banks Jr. Library
Capital Community College
Hartford, Connecticut


MATERIALS FROM ELECTRONIC, ONLINE RESOURCES
Online (Internet) resources must be held to the same high standards of scholarly integrity that we impose on material in the library. The difference is that your college library staff is not in charge of cyberspace; in fact, no one is. One problem of searching for materials on the World Wide Web, for instance, is that a search engine (as vastly improved as today's search engines are over their early progenitors) can return a listing from the Yale University English Department alongside a listing from my good Aunt Millie. An online document, Evaluating Web Resources , by Jan Alexander and Marsha Ann Tate of Widener University, is extremely helpful in establishing principles for evaluating Web-based materials. Students need to be cautious about using materials that are not retrievable (e-mail and discussion groups, especially) by others in the community of scholars. Also, students should generally not use or refer readers to URLs that are accessible only with a password (course Websites are usually accessible only with a password); sites accessible by easy and free registration (typical of newspapers) are acceptable, but are not encouraged if they lead to archived materials available only with a fee.
The section on using World Wide Web resources is based on advice given at the Modern Language Association's own web-site (using our own examples, however).
We also recommend "Documenting Internet Sources in MLA Style," by Andrew Harnack of Eastern Kentucky University. Harnack's Website is particularly helpful in that it suggests ways of incorporating quoted material into your paper using verbal clues and "source-reflective statements."
WWW Sites (World Wide Web)
To cite files available for viewing/downloading on the World Wide Web, the MLA suggests giving the following information, including as many items from the list below as are relevant and available.
1. Name of the author, editor, compiler, or translator, reversed for alphabetizing and followed by an abbreviation such as ed., trans., if appropriate
2. Title of the article, poem, short story with the scholarly project, database, periodical; in quotation marks, followed by the description Online posting
3. Title of a book (underlined)
4. Name of the editor, compliler, translator, if not cited earlier.followed by the appropriate abbreviation such as Ed., Trans., etc.
5. Publication information for any print version of this resource (if such a thing exists)
6. Title of the scholarly project, database, periodical or professional or personal site (underlined); or, for a site with no title, a description such as Home page
7. Name of the editor of the scholarly project or database (if available)
8. Version number of the source (If not part of the title) or other identifying number
9. Date of electronic publication, of the latest update, or of posting
10. Page numbers or the number of paragraphs or of other numbered sections of the material (if any)
11. Name of any institution or organization sponsoring or associated with the web site
12. Date when the researcher found access to this resource
13. Electronic address, or URL, of the resource (in ). It is no longer considered necessary to include the protocol (http://) for a WWW download, since most browsers will work without including that protocol. If possible, however, show the URL (Uniform Resource Locator) of the web-site in its entirely without break or inappropriate hyphens at line-endings and without spaces. (It's probably a good to provide the URL its own line. If you have to break the URL at the end of a line, do so immediately after a slash mark. If you are confronted with a very long URL, that is probably impossible to use (and might not be available, anyway, on subsequent attempts to get access to it. Instead, use the source page that got you to that page and include appropriate keywords that will yield your specfic source with an appropriate search.)

Note, also, that spelling is critically important in reporting URLs.
For the Works Cited Page
Scholarly Project
The Avalon Project: Articles of Confederation, 1781. Co-Directors William C. Fray and Lisa A. Spar. 1996. Yale Law School. 2 Dec. 2003
.
Professional Site
Guide to Grammar and Writing. Capital Community College. 4 April 2004
.
Personal Site
Jascot, John. Home page. 1 Dec. 1997. 38 Jan. 2004
.
Course Website
Darling, Charles. Introduction to Literature. Course Website. Jan. 2004–May 2004. Dept. of Humanities, Capital Community College. 20 May 2004
.
Book Published Online
Du Bois, W.E.B. The Souls of Black Folk. Chicago, 1903. Project Bartleby. Ed. Steven van Leeuwen. Dec. 1995. Columbia U. 2 Dec. 2003
.
Poem
Dunbar, William. "The tretis of the twa mariit women and the wedo." The Poems of William Dunbar Ed. James Kinsley. Clarendon Press, New York. 1979. University of Virginia Library Electronic Text Center. Ed. David Seaman. Jan. 1994. U. of Virginia. 2 February 2004
modeng&data=/lv1/Archive/mideng-parsed>.
Article in an Online Journal
Fitter, Chris. "The Poetic Nocturne: From Ancient Motif to Renaissance Genre." Early Modern Literary Studies 3.1 (Sept. 1997): 60 pars. 4 Mar. 2004
.
Article in an Online Magazine
Bowden, Mark. "Lessons of Abu Ghraib." Atlantic 293.5 (June 2004): 12 pars. 24 May 2004
.
Article in a Discussion Group or BLOG
Norton, J.R.. "Torture at Abu Ghraib: A Timeline." The O'Franken Factor (June 2004): 34 pars. 24 May 2004
.
In-text Citation
In parenthetical citations, you will treat online resources the same as you would treat other kinds of resources, according to their type (book, journal article, etc.). The key, remember, is to provide the means necessary for your reader to discover and share in what you have found, whether those resources can be found on a library shelf or in cyberspace.
As Fitter points out, "Landscape description in this period is in transition, from traditional paysage moralisé to pictorialism, and verse such as Saint-Amant's La Solitude, for instance, anticipates Romantic "mood-music" in the age of the emblem book" (59).
Databases on CD-ROM
Libraries often subscribe to databases that provide a wealth of material on CD-ROMs. And many textbooks, nowadays, are accompanied by CDs containing essential and ancillary materials. To cite material accessed from a periodically published database on CD-ROM, use the following models:
For the Works Cited Page
(taken from the MLA Handbook)
Angier, Natalie. "Chemists Learn Why Vegetables are Good for You." New York Times 13 Apr. 1993, late ed.: C1. New York Times Ondisc. CD-ROM. UMI-Proquest. Oct. 1993.
If the material on the CD-ROM does not exist in a printed version, use the following model:
"U.S. Population by Age: Urban and Urbanized Areas." 1990 U.S. Census of Population and Housing. CD-ROM. US Bureau of the Census. 1990.
For a nonperiodical publication on CD-ROM (that is, material that is published one time, without obvious plans for periodic updating):
Poetry Speaks. CD-ROM. Paschen, E. and Rebekah Presson Mosby, eds. Sourcebooks MediaFusion: Naperville, Ill. 2001.
"Albatross." The Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd ed. CD-ROM. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1992.
If you cannot find some of the information required for a CD-ROM citation — for example, the city and name of the publisher — cite what is available. If you get access to material through a library's computer terminal and cannot tell if the source is the library's hard drive or a CD-ROM, indicate "Electronic Medium" instead of CD-ROM.
EBSCO or other online source of full-text articles
To cite full-text articles appearing in online resources such as EBSCO, Periodicals Abstracts, Newspaper Abstracts, or Health Index, list the name of author (if given), title of article, title of journal (or other kind of resource), volume and issue number, date of publication, number of pages or n. pag (for no pagination), publication medium (Online or CD-ROM), name of the computer network (EBSCO, Periodicals Abstracts, etc.), date of access (the date that you actually discovered the material).
For the Works Cited Page
Heinegg, P. "You Still Can't Get There from Here." America 187.12 (21 Oct. 2002): 26. Online. Gale Database. Contemporary Literary Criticism. Capital Comm Coll Lib, Hartford, CT. 26 May 2004.
Anderson, J. "Keats in Harlem." New Republic 204.14 (8 Apr. 1991): n. pag. Online. EBSCO. Capital Comm Coll Lib, Hartford, CT. 29 December 2003.
In-text Citation
"There are no stylistic pyrotechnics, a la John Updike, no convoluted allegories of ego, a la Philip Roth, just quirky, meandering, anticlimactic narratives with perfect-pitch dialogue about a bunch of ordinary male, female and pre-adolescent losers" (Heinegg).
There are other technologies for storing and retrieving informaiton on the World Wide Web — Gopher, Telnet, FTP, MUDs, MOOs, etc. — but most of those have given way to the graphically superior and cross-platform compatibility of hypertext transfer protocol. However, it is possible, for instance, that your instructor has made selected materials available on a server so that you can only retrieve them by FTP (file transfer protocol). If so, there are special citation methods to indicate your resources, and you should consult the latest edition of the MLA Handbook for those formats — or ask your instructor for help.
Reference: Electronic and Online Resources
A. General Information
Electronic correspondences, such as e-mail or discussions on bulletin boards or discussion groups, is regarded by the APA as personal communication (like phone conversations or memos), because it is not recoverable by others. Personal communications are cited only within the text and not on the reference page.
However, if the information is, in fact, retrievable, the following elements are necessary for the reference page:
Author(s), I. (date —or "n.d." if not date is posted). Title of work. (Online), date retrieved. Name of Database or Internet address of the specific document. Specify URLexactly. [Do not end your entry with a period when ending with an URL.]
The date should be the year of publication or the most recent update. If the date of the source cannot be determined, provide the exact date you retrieved the information on the Internet.
The path information should be sufficient for someone else to retrieve the material. For example, specify the method used to find the material: the protocol (HTTP, Telnet, FTP, etc.), the directory, and the file name. Do not end the path statement with a period after a file name or Web address.
Just about everything of serious interest on the Internet is now available through the hypertext transfer protocol (the familiar HTTP). Some items, however, may still be discovered through FTP, GOPHER, TELNET, etc. (For instance, some universities might enable a professor to archive articles, etc. on a server accessible only through File Transfer Protocol (FTP). If you need to cite such sources, ask your instructor or consult the AP Publication Manual. It is not a good idea to cite resources that are available only with a password, unless that password can be established freely and easily (some online newspapers have password-protected archives like that). Also, do not refer your reader to a course Website that is password protected unless you know that all your potential readers have access to that material.
B. Sample References
Online article
Central Vein Occlusion Study Group. (1993. October 2). Central vein occlusion study of photocoagulation: Manual of operations [675 paragraphs]. Online Journal of Current Clinical Trials [On-line serial]. Available: Doc No. 92
On-line abstract
You can cite an entire Web site within your text, but do not include it in your list of References. For instance, you could say something incredibly profound you learned from this Web page, and cite the URL at the end of the paragraph (http://www.ccc.commnet.edu/apa/). If a line-break is necessary when you cite an URL, make the break immeidately after a slash mark and carefully avoid the insertion of a hyphen where none is appropriate.
ElectronicDatabase
College and public libraries subscribe to electronic databases such a sEBSCO, LexisNexis, OCLC, WilsonWeb, SIRS, etc. There are also online databases such as ERIC, PsychINFO, and Public Affairs Information Service (PAIS). These databases contain full-text articles and article abstracts.
Reference: Dissertation or Dissertation Abstract
When you have used an abstract of the dissertion found on microfilm in Dissertation Abstracts International (DAI). If you are using a microfilm source, include in parentheses at the end of your entry, the university microfilm number.
Darling, C. W. (1976). Giver of due regard: the poetry of Richard Wilbur. Dissertation Abstracts International, 44, 4465. (AAD44-8794)
When you have used the actual dissertation (usually from the shelves of the University where it was written, sometimes obtained through interlibrary loan):
Darling, C. W. (1976). Giver of due regard: the poetry of Richard Wilbur. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT.
Reference: Magazines/Periodicals
Wheatcroft, G. (2004, June). The Tragedy of Tony Blair. The Atlantic, 293 56–72.
Thomas, E. & Hosenball, M. (2004, May 31). Bush's Mr. Wrong: The Rise and Fall of Chalabi. Newsweek, 143, 22–32.
Use inclusive page numbers. Do not use the abbreviations "p." or "pp."
Reference: Scholarly Journal
Many scholarly journals number their pages consecutively throughout a given volume. Thus, volume one might end on page 345 and the first page of volume two would be number 345. Do not use p. or pp. to indicate page numbers. Notice that proper nouns are capitalized in an APA-style title, but other words are not. A comma separates the title of the journal from the volume number, but the volume number (as well as the comma that follows) is also italicized.
Christie, John S. (1993) Fathers and virgins: Garcia Marquez's Faulknerian Chronicle of a Death Foretold. Latin American Literary Review, 13, 21–29.
If that article were found in a journal in which each issue has pages numbered separately (each issue begins with a page 1), the issue number is given in parentheses but not in italics after the volume number.
Christie, John S. (1993) Fathers and virgins: Garcia Marquez's Faulknerian Chronicle of a Death Foretold. Latin American Literary Review, 13(3), 21–29.
Reference: Newspaper Articles, Editorials
Letters to the Editor, etc.
If the article is "signed" (that is, you know the author's name), begin with that author's name. (Notice how discontinuous pages are noted and separated by commas.) Do not omit the "The" from the title of a newspaper (unlike the MLA technique).
Poirot, C. (2004, March 17). HIV prevention pill goes beyond 'morning after'. The Hartford Courant, pp. F1, F6.
If the author's name is not available, begin the reference with the headline or title in the author position.
New exam for doctor of future. (1989, March 15). The New York Times, p. B-10.
If the text being cited is from an editorial or letter to the editor indicate the nature of the source in brackets after the title and date.
Silverman, P.H. (2004, June). Genetic Engineering [Letter to the editor]. The Atlantic, 293 14.
Reference: Nonprint Resources (Film, Recording, Video, television or radio program, etc.)
The source is identified in brackets after the title
Redford, R. (Director). (1980). Ordinary people [Film]. Hollywood: Paramount.
(film with limited circulation):
Holdt, D. (Producer), & Ehlers, E. (Director). (2002). River at High Summer: The St. Lawrence [Film]. (Available from Merganser Films, Inc., 61 Woodland Street, Hartford, CT 06105)
(Cassette):
Lake, F. L. (Author and speaker). (1989). Bias and organizational decision making [Cassette]. Gainesville: Edwards.
(Television program):
Safer, M. (Narrator). (2004). Torture at Abu Ghraib [Television broadcast]. Hartford: WFSB.
(Musical recording):
Barber, S. (1995). Cello Sonata. On Barber [CD]. New York: EMI Records Ltd.
Reference: Personal Interview, Phone Conversation, Letter, Non-archived E-Mail, etc.
Because this material is not recoverable (i.e., it is not possible for someone else to see or hear it), it should not be listed in the list of References. It can, however, be cited parenthetically within the text. It is extremely important that what is cited in this way be legitimate and have scholarly integrity.
(interview):
Wilbur finds himself sometimes surprised by the claims of religiosity made by contemporaries. (personal letter, March 28, 1977)

(phone conversation):
According to Connie May Fowler, the sources for her novel Sugar Cane were largely autobiographical (personal phone conversation, July 22, 2003)
Reference: Classroom Lecture
Like personal interviews and phone conversations, material presented in a classroom lecture is regarded as non-retrievable data. A lecture, therefore, should be cited within the text but not be included in your References. The model below could also be used for more formal lecture settings.
In an Introduction to Literature lecture at Capital Community College on April 14, 2004, Professor Charles Darling described William Carlos Williams' poem as a barnyard snapshot (C.W. Darling, ENG 102 lecture, April 14, 2004).
If the lecturer distributed material at the lecture, you could cite that resource in your References:
Darling, C.W. (2004, April). Images at Work in the Poetry of William Carlos Williams. Outline presented in a classroom lecture at Capital Community College, Hartford, CT.
Reference: Government Documents
Report from the Government Printing Office, corporate author.
Example:
National Institute of Mental Health. (1982). Television and behavior: Ten years of scientific progress (DHHS Publication No. A 82-1195). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Reports from a Document and Deposit Service (NTIS, ERIC) other than U.S. government
Examples:
Tandy, S. (1980). Development of behavioral techniques to control hyperaggressiveness in young children (CYC Report No. 80-3562). Washington, DC: Council on Young Children. (NTIS No. P880-14322).
Gottfredson, L. S. (1980). How valid are occupational reinforcer pattern scores? (Report No. CSOS-R-292). Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University. Center for Social Organization of Schools. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 182 465)
Reference: Electronic and Online Resources
A. General Information
Electronic correspondences, such as e-mail or discussions on bulletin boards or discussion groups, is regarded by the APA as personal communication (like phone conversations or memos), because it is not recoverable by others. Personal communications are cited only within the text and not on the reference page.
However, if the information is, in fact, retrievable, the following elements are necessary for the reference page:
Author(s), I. (date —or "n.d." if not date is posted). Title of work. (Online), date retrieved. Name of Database or Internet address of the specific document. Specify URLexactly. [Do not end your entry with a period when ending with an URL.]
The date should be the year of publication or the most recent update. If the date of the source cannot be determined, provide the exact date you retrieved the information on the Internet.
The path information should be sufficient for someone else to retrieve the material. For example, specify the method used to find the material: the protocol (HTTP, Telnet, FTP, etc.), the directory, and the file name. Do not end the path statement with a period after a file name or Web address.
Just about everything of serious interest on the Internet is now available through the hypertext transfer protocol (the familiar HTTP). Some items, however, may still be discovered through FTP, GOPHER, TELNET, etc. (For instance, some universities might enable a professor to archive articles, etc. on a server accessible only through File Transfer Protocol (FTP). If you need to cite such sources, ask your instructor or consult the AP Publication Manual. It is not a good idea to cite resources that are available only with a password, unless that password can be established freely and easily (some online newspapers have password-protected archives like that). Also, do not refer your reader to a course Website that is password protected unless you know that all your potential readers have access to that material.
B. Sample References
Online article
Central Vein Occlusion Study Group. (1993. October 2). Central vein occlusion study of photocoagulation: Manual of operations [675 paragraphs]. Online Journal of Current Clinical Trials [On-line serial]. Available: Doc No. 92
On-line abstract
You can cite an entire Web site within your text, but do not include it in your list of References. For instance, you could say something incredibly profound you learned from this Web page, and cite the URL at the end of the paragraph (http://www.ccc.commnet.edu/apa/). If a line-break is necessary when you cite an URL, make the break immeidately after a slash mark and carefully avoid the insertion of a hyphen where none is appropriate.
Electronic Database
College and public libraries subscribe to electronic databases such a sEBSCO, LexisNexis, OCLC, WilsonWeb, SIRS, etc. There are also online databases such as ERIC, PsychINFO, and Public Affairs Information Service (PAIS). These databases contain full-text articles and article abstracts.
Annotated Bibliography
An annotated bibliography will have the same basic layout as a Reference page. There are three major differences, however. First, you can include in your bibliography works that you think would be useful to your reader that you might not have used in the writing of this particular paper or article. Second, you can break down the references into useful categories and arrange those categories in ways that you think would be helpful to your reader. Third, you can add commentary to the references, telling your reader the particular virtues (or, if necessary, the shortcomings) of that resource. Commentaries should be concise, economical summaries, written in sentence fragments; if related, fragments should be connected with semicolons. The commentary should begin on a new line, indented slightly from the preceding line.
Example:
National Institute of Mental Health. (1982). Television and behavior: Ten years of scientific progress (DHHS Publication No. A 82-1195). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Documents connections between children's lack of attention in school and hours of television watching; provides scientific evidence of changed viewing habits over ten years.


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